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List of birds in Madagascar

Madagascar is an island nation located off the southeastern coast of Africa. Because of its long separation from neighboring continents—through tectonic movement, it split from Africa about 160 million years ago, and from India around 90 million years ago—it contains many species endemic to the island.[1] Of the 287 bird species recorded on Madagascar, 105 are found nowhere else on earth, and a handful of others are shared only with the neighbouring Comoro Islands;[2] one has been declared extinct.[3]

This list’s taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) follows the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition.[4]

Species status comments are taken from Morris and Hawkins’s Birds of Madagascar: A Photographic Guide unless otherwise noted. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts. The IUCN Red List codes are those given by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources; they come from the IUCN’s Red List website.[5]

The endemic Madagascar red fody is common and widespread, even in the country’s capital, Antananarivo.[22]
Taxonomic order Common name Scientific name Status IUCN code
1 White-faced whistling duck Dendrocygna viduata Common resident LC
2 Fulvous whistling duck Dendrocygna bicolor Uncommon resident LC
3 White-backed duck Thalassornis leuconotus Rare resident LC
4 Knob-billed duck Sarkidiornis melanotos Locally common resident LC
5 African pygmy goose Nettapus auritus Common resident LC
6 Meller’s duck* Anas melleri Uncommon resident EN
7 Bernier’s teal* Anas bernieri Rare resident EN
8 Red-billed teal Anas erythrorhyncha Common resident LC
9 Hottentot teal Spatula hottentota Locally common resident LC
10 Madagascan pochard* Aythya innotata Recently rediscovered CR
11 Helmeted guineafowl% Numida meleagris Common resident LC
12 Madagascan partridge* Margaroperdix madagarensis Uncommon resident LC
13 Common quail Coturnix coturnix Uncommon resident LC
14 Harlequin quail Coturnix delegorguei Uncommon visitor LC
15 Alaotra grebe* Tachybaptus rufolavatus Extinct[3] EX
16 Little grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis Locally common resident LC
17 Madagascan grebe* Tachybaptus pelzelnii Uncommon resident VU
18 Greater flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus Regular, rare breeder LC
19 Lesser flamingo Phoenicopterus minor Erratic migrant NT
20 Southern rockhopper penguin Eudyptes chrysocome Very rare vagrant VU
21 Northern rockhopper penguin Eudyptes moseleyi Very rare vagrant EN
22 Indian yellow-nosed albatross Thalassarche carteri Rare vagrant EN
23 Salvin’s albatross Thalassarche salvini Rare vagrant VU
24 Shy albatross Thalassarche cauta Rare vagrant VU
25 Black-browed albatross Thalassarche melanophrys Rare vagrant EN
26 Southern giant petrel Macronectes giganteus Regular offshore NT
27 Cape petrel Daption capense Offshore migrant LC
28 Great-winged petrel Pterodroma macroptera Uncommon LC
29 Soft-plumaged petrel Pterodroma mollis Very rare vagrant LC
30 Barau’s petrel Pterodroma baraui Very rare vagrant EN
31 Antarctic prion Pachyptila desolata Offshore migrant LC
32 Slender-billed prion Pachyptila belcheri Rare vagrant LC
33 Bulwer’s petrel Bulweria bulwerii Very rare vagrant[23] LC
34 Jouanin’s petrel Bulweria fallax Very rare vagrant LC
35 Cory’s shearwater Calonectris diomedea Very rare vagrant LC
36 Flesh-footed shearwater Ardenna carneipes Very rare vagrant LC
37 Wedge-tailed shearwater Ardenna pacificus Uncommon offshore LC
38 Tropical shearwater Puffinus bailloni Uncommon offshore LC
39 Wilson’s storm petrel Oceanites oceanicus Regular migrant LC
40 White-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina Very rare vagrant LC
41 White-bellied storm petrel Fregetta grallaria Very rare vagrant LC
42 Black-bellied storm petrel Fregetta tropica Regular LC
43 White-tailed tropicbird Phaethon lepturus Visiting breeder LC
44 Red-billed tropicbird Phaethon aethereus Very rare vagrant LC
45 Red-tailed tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda Visiting breeder LC
46 African openbill Anastomus lamelligerus Resident LC
47 Yellow-billed stork Mycteria ibis Locally common LC
48 Greater frigatebird Fregata minor Casual visitor LC
49 Lesser frigatebird Fregata ariel Casual visitor LC
50 Masked booby Sula dactylatra Very rare vagrant LC
51 Brown booby Sula leucogaster Visiting breeder LC
52 Red-footed booby Sula sula Uncommon visitor LC
53 Long-tailed cormorant Microcarbo africanus Resident LC
54 African darter Anhinga rufa Resident LC
55 Pink-backed pelican Pelecanus rufescens Rare vagrant LC
56 Hamerkop Scopus umbretta Resident LC
57 Little bittern Ixobrychus minutus Scarce breeder LC
58 Gray heron Ardea cinerea Fairly common resident LC
59 Black-headed heron Ardea melanocephala Very rare vagrant LC
60 Humblot’s heron Ardea humbloti Uncommon resident EN
61 Goliath heron Ardea goliath Very rare vagrant LC
62 Purple heron Ardea purpurea Fairly common resident LC
63 Great egret Ardea alba Common resident LC
64 Dimorphic egret Egretta dimorpha Fairly common resident LC
65 Black heron Egretta ardesiaca Fairly common resident LC
66 Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis Common resident LC
67 Squacco heron Ardeola ralloides Common resident LC
68 Madagascar pond heron Ardeola idae Visiting breeder LC
69 Striated heron Butorides striata Fairly common resident LC
70 Black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax Uncommon resident LC
71 Glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus Common resident LC
72 Madagascan ibis* Lophotibis cristata Rare resident NT
73 Madagascar white ibis Threskiornis bernieri Rare resident EN
74 African spoonbill Platalea alba Uncommon resident LC
75 Osprey Pandion haliaetus Rare vagrant LC
76 Black-shouldered kite Elanus caeruleus LC
77 Madagascan harrier-hawk* Polyboroides radiatus LC
78 Madagascan serpent eagle* Eutriorchis astur EN
79 Madagascar cuckoo-hawk* Aviceda madagascariensis LC
80 Bat hawk Macheiramphus alcinus LC
81 Madagascar marsh harrier* Circus macrosceles VU
82 Frances’s goshawk* Accipiter francesii LC
83 Madagascan sparrowhawk* Accipiter madagascariensis NT
84 Henst’s goshawk* Accipiter henstii NT
85 Yellow-billed kite Milvus aegyptius NR
86 Madagascan fish eagle* Haliaeetus vociferoides CR
87 Madagascan buzzard* Buteo brachypterus LC
88 White-breasted mesite* Mesitornis variegata Locally common resident VU
89 Brown mesite* Mesitornis unicolor Uncommon resident VU
90 Subdesert mesite* Monias benschi Uncommon resident VU
91 Madagascar wood-rail* Canirallus kioloides LC
92 Tsingy wood rail* Mentocrex beankaensis Range-restricted resident[24] NT
93 Madagascan rail* Rallus madagascariensis VU
94 White-throated rail Dryolimnas cuvieri LC
95 Sakalava rail* Amaurornis olivieri EN
96 Baillon’s crake Porzana pusilla LC
97 African swamphen Porphyrio madagascariensis LC
98 Allen’s gallinule Porphyrio alleni LC
99 Common moorhen Gallinula chloropus LC
100 Red-knobbed coot Fulica cristata LC
101 Madagascan flufftail* Sarothrura insularis LC
102 Slender-billed flufftail* Sarothrura watersi EN
103 Black-winged stilt Himantopus himantopus Fairly common resident LC
104 Pied avocet Recurvirostra avosetta Very rare vagrant LC
105 Grey plover Pluvialis squatarola LC
106 Pacific golden plover Pluvialis fulva LC
107 Lesser sandplover Charadrius mongolus LC
108 Greater sandplover Charadrius leschenaultii LC
109 Kittlitz’s plover Charadrius pecuarius LC
110 Common ringed plover Charadrius hiaticula LC
111 Madagascan plover* Charadrius thoracicus VU
112 Three-banded plover Charadrius tricollaris LC
113 White-fronted plover Charadrius marginatus LC
114 Greater painted-snipe Rostratula benghalensis LC
115 Madagascan jacana* Actophilornis albinucha NT
116 Terek sandpiper Xenus cinereus LC
117 Common sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos LC
118 Green sandpiper Tringa ochropus LC
119 Common greenshank Tringa nebularia LC
120 Marsh sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis LC
121 Wood sandpiper Tringa glareola LC
122 Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus LC
123 Eurasian curlew Numenius arquata NT
124 Black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa NT
125 Bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica LC
126 Ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres LC
127 Ruff Calidris pugnax LC
128 Curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea LC
129 Sharp-tailed sandpiper Calidris acuminata Very rare vagrant[25] LC
130 Sanderling Calidris alba LC
131 Little stint Calidris minuta LC
132 Buff-breasted sandpiper Calidris subruficollis Very rare vagrant[26] LC
133 Madagascan snipe* Gallinago macrodactyla VU
134 Red-necked phalarope Phalaropus lobatus Very rare vagrant[26] LC
135 Madagascan buttonquail* Turnix nigricollis Common resident LC
136 Crab-plover Dromas ardeola Common visitor LC
137 Madagascan pratincole Glareola ocularis VU
138 Brown skua Stercorarius antarctica LC
139 Pomarine skua Sterocorarius pomarinus LC
140 Arctic skua Stercorarius parasiticus LC
141 Long-tailed skua Stercorarius longicaudus LC
142 Gray-headed gull Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus LC
143 Kelp gull Larus dominicanus LC
144 Brown noddy Anous stolidus LC
145 Lesser noddy Anous tenuirostris LC
146 White tern Gygis alba LC
147 Sooty tern Onychoprion fuscatus LC
148 Bridled tern Onychoprion anaethetus LC
149 Saunders’s tern Sternula saundersi LC
150 Damara tern Sternula balaenarum NT
151 Gull-billed tern Gelochelidon nilotica LC
152 Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia LC
153 Black tern Chlidonias niger LC
154 White-winged tern Chlidonias leucopterus LC
155 Whiskered tern Chlidonias hybrida LC
156 Roseate tern Sterna dougallii LC
157 Black-naped tern Sterna sumatrana LC
158 Common tern Sterna hirundo LC
159 Greater crested tern Thalasseus bergii LC
160 Sandwich tern Thalasseus sandvicensis LC
161 Lesser crested tern Thalasseus bengalensis LC
162 Madagascan sandgrouse* Pterocles personatus LC
163 Rock pigeon% Columba livia LC
164 Malagasy turtle dove Nesoenas picturatus LC
165 Namaqua dove Oena capensis LC
166 Madagascan green pigeon Treron australis LC
167 Madagascan blue pigeon* Alectroenas madagascariensis LC
168 Thick-billed cuckoo Pachycoccyx audeberti LC
169 Madagascar lesser cuckoo Cuculus rochii LC
170 Giant coua* Coua gigas LC
171 Coquerel’s coua* Coua coquereli LC
172 Red-breasted coua* Coua serriana LC
173 Red-fronted coua* Coua reynaudii LC
174 Red-capped coua* Coua ruficeps LC
175 Running coua* Coua cursor LC
176 Crested coua* Coua cristata LC
177 Verreaux’s coua* Coua verreauxi NT
178 Blue coua* Coua caerulea LC
179 Madagascar coucal Centropus toulou LC
180 Barn owl Tyto alba LC
181 Red owl* Tyto soumagnei VU
182 Malagasy scops-owl* Otus rutilus LC
183 Madagascan owl* Asio madagascariensis LC
184 Marsh owl Asio capensis LC
185 White-browed owl Ninox superciliaris LC
186 Collared nightjar* Gactornis enarratus LC
187 Madagascan nightjar Caprimulgus madagascariensis LC
188 Malagasy spinetail Zoonavena grandidieri Widespread resident LC
189 Alpine swift Tachymarptis melba Widespread resident LC
190 Madagascar swift Apus balstoni Widespread resident LC
191 Little swift Apus affinis Recent colonist LC
192 African palm swift Cypsiurus parvus Widespread resident LC
193 Malagasy kingfisher Corythornis vintsioides Common resident LC
194 Madagascan pygmy kingfisher* Corythornis madagascariensis Common resident LC
195 Madagascar bee-eater Merops superciliosus LC
196 European bee-eater Merops apiaster Very rare vagrant LC
197 Broad-billed roller Eurystomus glaucurus LC
198 Short-legged ground roller* Brachypteracias leptosomus Resident VU
199 Scaly ground roller* Brachypteracias squamigera Resident VU
200 Pitta-like ground roller* Atelornis pittoides Resident LC
201 Rufous-headed ground roller* Atelornis crossleyi Resident NT
202 Long-tailed ground roller* Uratelornis chimaera Resident VU
203 Cuckoo-roller Leptosomus discolor LC
204 Madagascan hoopoe Upupa marginata LC
205 Madagascar kestrel Falco newtoni Resident LC
206 Banded kestrel* Falco zoniventris Uncommon resident LC
207 Eleonora’s falcon Falco eleonorae Winter visitor LC
208 Sooty falcon Falco concolor Winter visitor NT
209 Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus Scarce resident LC
210 Greater vasa parrot* Coracopsis vasa LC
211 Lesser vasa parrot Coracopsis nigra LC
212 Grey-headed lovebird* Agapornis canus LC
213 Velvet asity* Philepitta castanea LC
214 Schlegel’s asity* Philepitta schlegeli NT
215 Common sunbird-asity* Neodrepanis coruscans LC
216 Yellow-bellied sunbird-asity* Neodrepanis hypoxanthus VU
217 Archbold’s newtonia* Newtonia archboldi LC
218 Common newtonia* Newtonia brunneicauda LC
219 Dark newtonia* Newtonia amphichroa LC
220 Red-tailed newtonia* Newtonia fanovanae VU
221 Tylas vanga* Tylas eduardi LC
222 Red-tailed vanga* Calicalicus madagascariensis Fairly common resident LC
223 Red-shouldered vanga* Calicalicus rufocarpalis Uncommon resident VU
224 Nuthatch vanga* Hypositta corallirostris LC
225 Chabert vanga* Leptopterus chabert LC
226 Crossley’s vanga* Mystacornis crossleyi LC
227 Blue vanga* Cyanolanius madagascarinus LC
228 Ward’s flycatcher* Pseudobias wardi Range-restricted resident LC
229 Hook-billed vanga* Vanga curvirostris LC
230 Rufous vanga* Schetba rufa LC
231 Helmet vanga* Euryceros prevostii VU
232 Bernier’s vanga* Oriolia bernieri VU
233 Sickle-billed vanga* Falculea palliata LC
234 White-headed vanga* Artamella viridis LC
235 Pollen’s vanga* Xenopirostris polleni NT
236 Lafresnaye’s vanga* Xenopirostris xenopirostris LC
237 Van Dam’s vanga* Xenopirostris damii EN
238 Ashy cuckooshrike Coracina cinerea LC
239 Eurasian golden oriole Oriolus oriolus LC
240 Crested drongo Dicrurus forficatus Common resident LC
241 Madagascar paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone mutata Common resident LC
242 House crow Corvus splendens Very rare vagrant[27] LC
243 Pied crow Corvus albus Common resident LC
244 Madagascan lark* Eremopterix hova LC
245 Brown-throated martin Riparia paludicola LC
246 Sand martin Riparia riparia LC
247 Mascarene martin Phedina borbonica LC
248 Barn swallow Hirundo rustica LC
249 Madagascar bulbul Hypsipetes madagascariensis LC
250 Madagascar brush warbler* Nesillas typica (E) LC
251 Madagascan swamp warbler* Acrocephalus newtoni LC
252 Brown emutail* Bradypterus brunneus LC
253 Grey emutail* Amphilais seebohmi LC
254 White-throated oxylabes* Oxylabes madagascariensis LC
255 Long-billed bernieria* Bernieria madagascariensis LC
256 Cryptic warbler* Cryptosylvicola randriansoloi LC
257 Wedge-tailed jery* Hartertula flavoviridis NT
258 Thamnornis* Thamnornis chloropetoides LC
259 Yellow-browed oxylabes* Crossleyia xanthophrys NT
260 Spectacled tetraka* Xanthomixis zosterops LC
261 Appert’s tetraka* Xanthomixis apperti VU
262 Dusky tetraka* Xanthomixis tenebrosus VU
263 Grey-crowned tetraka* Xanthomixis cinereiceps NT
264 Rand’s warbler* Randia pseudozosterops LC
265 Common jery* Neomixis tenella LC
266 Green jery* Neomixis viridis LC
267 Stripe-throated jery* Neomixis striatigula LC
268 Madagascan cisticola Cisticola cherinus LC
269 Madagascar white-eye Zosterops maderaspatanus LC
270 Madagascar magpie-robin* Copsychus albospecularis LC
271 Forest rock thrush* Monticola sharpei LC
272 Littoral rock thrush* Monticola imerinus LC
273 Madagascan stonechat* Saxicola sibilla LC
274 Northern wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe Very rare vagrant[28] LC
275 Madagascan starling* Hartlaubius auratus Fairly common northwest, north and east LC
276 Common myna% Acridotheres tristis Introduced and spreading LC
277 Wattled starling Creatophora cinerea Very rare vagrant LC
278 Souimanga sunbird Cinnyris sovimanga LC
279 Malagasy green sunbird Cinnyris notatus LC
280 Madagascan wagtail* Motacilla flaviventris LC
281 House sparrow% Passer domesticus LC
282 Nelicourvi weaver* Ploceus nelicourvi Fairly common in suitable habitat LC
283 Sakalava weaver* Ploceus sakalava LC
284 Madagascar red fody* Foudia madagascariensis Very common LC
285 Forest fody* Foudia omissa Fairly common LC
286 Common waxbill% Estrilda astrild Introduced and local LC
287 Madagascar munia* Lonchura nana Common in suitable habitat LC